GRE閱讀真題200篇LEVEL1:Many philosophers ...

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  32. Many philosophers disagree

  Many philosophers disagree over the definition of morality, but most disputants fall into one of two categories: egocentrics, who define morality as the pursuit of self-fulfillment, and sociocentrics, who define morality as an individual’s obligations to society. Where does the truth lie? Fortunately, the stem of the word “morality” provides some clues. The word “mores” originally referred to the customs of preliterate cultures. Mores, which embodied each culture’s ideal principles for governing every citizen, were developed in the belief that the foundation of a community lies in the cultivation of individual powers to be placed in service to the community. These mores were concerned with such skills as food-gathering and warfare as well as an individual’s relationships with others. Thus, I submit, “morality” must be concerned with what is honored by the community at large. However, self-fulfillment is important to morality because unfulfilled citizens, no matter how virtuous, cannot perform the duties morality assigns them.

  17. The primary purpose of this passage is to

  (A) summarize an argument

  (B) resolve a dispute

  (C) trace a word’s origin

  (D) prove a hypothesis

  (E) initiate a debate

  18. According to the passage, mores in preliterate cultures concerned such skills as warfare and food-gathering because these skills were

  (A) characteristic of an individual’s self-fulfillment

  (B) examples of a culture’s traditions

  (C) manifestations of an individual’s ideals

  (D) demonstrations of an individual’s contributions to the community

  (E) examples of a community’s governing principles

  19. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding sociocentrics and egocentrics?

  (A) The position of the sociocentrics is stronger than that of the egocentrics.

  (B) The positions of the egocentrics and sociocentrics are of equal merit.

  (C) There is no merit in the position of the egocentrics.

  (D) Neither position contributes very much to an understanding of the definition of morality.

  (E) The dispute between the egocentrics and sociocentrics is based on trivial issues.

  20. With which of the following statements regarding the relationship between the individual and morality would the author be most likely to agree?

  (A) Failure in social obligations is the price of success in individual endeavors.

  (B) The unfulfilled citizen cannot fulfill his moral obligations to the community.

  (C) Morality is unconcerned with conflicts among citizens.

  (D) The unfulfilled citizen is without virtue.

  (E) Wealth harms a citizen’s moral standing in the community.