老托閱讀100篇PASSAGE56:民歌定義的不同理解

2015/09/06 瀏覽次數:20 收藏
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  老托瀏覽100篇相對於TPO要簡略一些,也是隨同托福備考學員的很主要的一份材料,對付基本軟弱,做TPO真題瀏覽須要過渡的考生來講再合適不外了,本日給眾人分享的是老托瀏覽100篇PASSAGE 56:民歌界說的分歧懂得,願望考生賣力演習。

  PASSAGE 56:民歌界說的分歧懂得

  The term "folk song" has been current for over a hundred years, but there is still a good deal of disagreement as to what it actually means. The definition provided by the International Folk Music Council states that folk music is the music of ordinary people, which is passed on from person to person by being listened to rather than learned from the printed page. Other factors that help shape a folk song include: continuity (many performances over a number of years); variation (changes in words and melodies either through artistic interpretation or failure of memory); and selection (the acceptance of a song by the community in which it evolves).

  When songs have been subjected to these processes their origin is usually impossible to trace. For instance, if a farm laborer were to make up a song and sing it to a-couple of friends who like it and memorize it, possibly when the friends come to sing it themselves one of them might forget some of the words and make up new ones to fill the gap, while the other, perhaps more artistic, might add a few decorative touches to the tune and improve a couple of lines of text. If this happened a few times there would be many different versions, the song's original composer would be forgotten, and the song would become common property. This constant reshaping and re-creation is the essence of folk music. Consequently, modem popular songs and other published music, even though widely sung by people who are not professional musicians, are not considered folk music. The music and words have been set by a printed or recorded source, limiting scope for further artistic creation. These songs' origins cannot be disguised and therefore they belong primarily to the composer and not to a community.

  The ideal situation for the creation of folk music is an isolated rural community. In such a setting folk songs and dances have a special purpose at every stage in a person's life, from childhood to death. Epic tales of heroic deeds, seasonal songs relating to calendar events, and occupational songs are also likely to be sung.

  1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

  (A) Themes commonly found in folk music

  (B) Elements that define folk music

  (C) Influences of folk music on popular music

  (D) The standards of the International Folk Music Council

  2. Which of the following statements about the term "folk song" is supported by the passage ?

  (A) It has been used for several centuries.

  (B) The International Folk Music Council invented it.

  (C) It is considered to be out-of-date.

  (D) There is disagreement about its meaning.

  3. The word "it" in line 8 refers to

  (A) community

  (B) song

  (C) acceptance

  (D) memory

  4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the typical folk song?

  (A) It is constantly changing over time.

  (B) It is passed on to other people by being performed.

  (C) It contains complex musical structures.

  (D) It appeals to many people.

  5. The word "subjected" in line 9 is closest in meaning to

  (A) reduced

  (B) modified

  (C) exposed

  (D) imitated

  6. The author mentions the farm laborer and his friends (lines 10-14) in order to do which of the following?

  (A) Explain how a folk song evolves over time

  (B) Illustrate the importance of music to rural workers

  (C) Show how subject matter is selected for a folk song

  (D) Demonstrate how a community, chooses a folk song

  7. According to the passage , why would the original composers of folk songs be forgotten?

  (A) Audiences prefer songs composed by professional musicians.

  (B) Singers dislike the decorative touches in folk song tunes.

  (C) Numerous variations of folk songs come to exist at the same time.

  (D) Folk songs are not considered an important form of music.

  8. The word "essence" in line 16 is closest in meaning to

  (A) basic nature

  (B) growing importance

  (C) full extent

  (D) first phase

  9. The author mentions that published music is not considered to be folk music because

  (A) the original composer can be easily identified

  (B) the songs attract only the young people in a community

  (C) the songs are generally performed by professional singers

  (D) the composers write the music in rural communities

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