名師講解:GRE閱讀文章結構配例題

2015/06/08 瀏覽次數:71 收藏
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  GRE瀏覽文章的常見“主體構造”有三種:

  1. 結論-說明型(也叫論點-說明型)

  2. 新老概念比較型

  3. 征象說明型(包括題目-辦理計劃型)

  起首是“結論-說明型”文章。這種文章在開端有一個斷定句,通常為文章的結論,也是文章的主題。這個斷定句的謂語部門平日包括系動詞(is, remain, prove, turn out, appear等)或情態動詞(can, may, should, must等),並且含有表現立場的辭匯(如形容詞等)。比方,

  Because of its accuracy in outlining the Earth's subsurface, the seismic-reflection method remains the most important tool in the search for petroleum reserves. In field practice, a subsurface is mapped by arranging a series of wave-train sources, such as small dynamite explosions, in a grid pattern…

  文章首句指出:“因為‘地動反射法’(sr)在勾劃地球的地基層面這方面的精確性,該辦法一向是探訪煤油貯備的最主要的對象。”這是一個斷定句,為結論。個中remains為系動詞,而most important為立場詞,表現作者對“地動反射法”持異常正面的評價。後文應說明“地動反射法”的詳細進程。第二句話對說明舉行總的解釋:“在實地功課中,經由過程將一系列波列源,諸如小範圍火藥爆炸,分列成一個網格模式,從而將地基層面標繪出來。”接下來是“地動反射法”的具體進程。

  GRE瀏覽文章的第二種常見構造是“新老概念比較型”。這種文章在開端提出老概念,然後提出新概念並舉行闡述。平日新概念是文章的主題。老概念湧現的標記詞有:

  1. 傳統概念: has been, traditionally, until recently等

  2. 民眾概念:frequently, widely, many等

  新概念湧現的標記詞有:however, recently, now等。

  比方,

  Traditionally, pollination by wind has been viewed as a reproductive process marked by random events in which the vagaries of the wind are compensated for by the generation of vast quantities of pollen, so that the ultimate production of new seeds is assured at the expense of producing much more pollen than is actually used.

  However, a number of features that are characteristic of wind-pollinated plants reduce pollen waste….

  文章首句指出:“傳統上,風媒授粉進程一向被視為是一個以隨機事宜為標記的滋生進程,個中風的不肯定性經由過程發生大批花粉而得以賠償,是以,新種子的終極滋生得以包管,而此舉的價值是所需發生的花粉要遠遠跨越現實的應用量。”由第一個詞traditionally可知文章首句為老概念(因為風的不肯定性,風媒植物要發生大批花粉賠償),那末本文的構造是“新老概念比較型”。

  第二段首句湧現了GRE瀏覽中的標記性遷移轉變詞however,解釋這句話便是新概念:“然則,風媒植物所特有的一系列特點可削減花粉糟蹋。”這解釋風媒植物除可以發生大批花粉加以賠償的悲觀計謀以外,還可以經由過程一些踴躍機制削減花粉喪失,不必定須要發生大批花粉。

  GRE瀏覽文章的第三種常見構造是“征象說明型”。文章開端提出一個征象,然後說明征象。說明是主題。有多個說明時,作者一樣平常對前面的說明持負面評價,對末了的說明持正面評價。提出征象時的標記詞有:phenomenon, fact; problem, difficulty, puzzle, question等。比方,

  What causes a helix in nature to appear with either a dextral ("right-handed,"or clockwise) twist or a sinistral ("left-handed," or counterclockwise') twist is one of the most intriguing puzzles in the science of form…What mechanisms, control handedness and keep left-handedness rare?

  It would seem unlikely that evolution should discriminate against sinistral snails if sinistral and dextral snails are exact mirror images, for any disadvantage that a sinistral twist in itself could confer on its possessor is almost inconceivable. But left- and right-handed snails are not actually true mirror images of one another…

  But this evolutionary mechanism combining dissymmetry, anatomy, and chance does not provide an adequate explanation of why right-handedness should have become predominant…

  Here, the evolutionary theory must defer to a theory based on an explicit developmental mechanism that can favor either right- or left-handedness…Thus, the path to a solution to the puzzle of handedness in all snails appears to be as twisted as the helix itself.

  是甚麽樣的緣故原由導致天然界中的螺旋體出現出右旋(“右向扭轉的”,或順時針的)或左旋(“左向扭轉的,”或反時針的)?這是形態科學中一個最令人著迷的不解之謎......到底是一些甚麽樣的機制掌握著扭轉偏向,並使左旋的比例為數稀疏呢?

  如果左旋和右旋蝸牛呈完整同等的鏡像對稱的話,那末進化對左旋蝸牛晦氣,這近乎不太大概。險些沒法想象左旋自己會給左旋者帶來任何晦氣的地方。但是,左旋與右旋蝸牛相互間現實上其實不呈真實的鏡像對稱......

  然則,這類聯合紕謬稱、剖解學和有時性的進化論機制並未供給一種充足的說明,以解釋蝸牛的右旋何故會成為重要的旋向......

  因而,進化論必需讓處於支撐右旋或左旋的明白的發育機制為基本的理論......是以,辦理全部蝸牛身上旋向之謎的途徑仿佛與這一螺旋體自己同樣彎曲龐雜。

  上文在第一段末了提出一個題目:“到底是一些甚麽樣的機制掌握著扭轉偏向,並使左旋的比例為數稀疏呢?ァ閉飧鑫侍餼褪且桓魷窒螅郝菪體中左旋的比例少。有題目就有解答,有征象就有說明。第二段從進化論的角度說明這一征象。然則,GRE瀏覽文章中一樣平常對進化論的說明持負面評價,以是須要探求新的說明。第三段否認了進化論的說明。在末段,作者以發育機制(developmental mechanism)說明“為什麽左旋少、右旋多”。

  掌控了文章的三種主體構造今後,做文章後的很多題時輕而易舉。以上述的“結論——說明型”文章為例,假如熟習文章的主體構造,下面兩道題就很輕易找到準確謎底。

  1. The passage is primarily concerned with

  (A) describing an important technique

  (B) discussing a new method

  (C) investigating a controversial procedure

  (D) announcing a significant discovery

  (E) promoting a novel application

  準確謎底對應文章首句的主題句。是以(A)為準確謎底。

  2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

  (A) A method is criticized, and an alternative is suggested.

  (B) An illustration is examined, and some errors are exposed.

  (C) An assertion is made, and a procedure is outlined.

  (D) A series of examples is presented, and a conclusion is drawn.

  (E) A hypothesis is advanced, and supporting evidence is supplied.

  本文的構造是“結論—說明型”,是以(C)為準確謎底。

  因而可知,掌控文章的主體構造,而不墮入文章文句與細節的泥沼中,是一件如意的工作:文章讀得爽,題也做得爽。